Borrelia garinii may affect crucial DC functions by blocking the up-regulation of important molecules in DC migration to lymph nodes, thus affecting further immune responses in Lyme borreliosis infection (Hartiala et al. 2007). Furthermore, to determine whether the inability of B. garinii to induce CD38 expression would be related to other B. burgdorferi genospecies as well, Hartiala and colleagues (J Immunol. 2010) stimulated DC with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. afzelii. Neither of these Borrelia genospecies induced CD38 upregulation. Thus low levels of CD38 might indicate Borrelia infection. Thus low levels of CD38 would point towards Borrelia infection, while High levels of CD38 would suggest other Gram- bacterial infection(s).